Coalescent-based methods for infectious disease: a meta-analysis of hepatitis C virus epidemiology
Genetic analysis of pathogen genomes is a powerful approach to investigating the population dynamics and epidemic history of infectious diseases. However, the theoretical underpinnings of the most widely used, coalescent methods have been questioned, casting doubt on their interpretation. The aim of this paper is to develop robust population genetic inference for compartmental models in epidemiology. Using a general approach based on the theory of metapopulations, we derive coalescent models under SI, SIS and SIR dynamics. We show that exponential and logistic growth models are equivalent to SI and SIS models respectively when co-infection is negligible. Implementing SI, SIS and SIR models in BEAST, we conduct a meta-analysis of hepatitis C epidemics, and show that we can directly estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and prevalence under SIR dynamics. We find that differences in genetic diversity between epidemics can be explained by differences in underlying epidemiology (age of the epidemic and local population density) and viral subtype. Model comparison reveals SIR dynamics in three globally restricted epidemics, but most are better fit by the simpler SI dynamics. In summary, metapopulation models provide a general and practical framework for integrating epidemiology and population genetics for the purposes of joint inference.